European Institute for Socioeconomics

EIS book series

Activities and projects of the institute are published regularly in the form of scientific studies and publications. On the one hand, this is done as part of a separate series of publications.

EIS discussion paper

Furthermore, reports are published in the form of discussion papers, which are often subsequently published in renowned scientific specialist bodies.



Further Publications

We provide further full texts of institute members under the section “Other”.



Discussion paper

Further publications

Volume 1

Emrich, E. & Pierdzioch, C. (2011)

Im Biotop der Wissenschaft. Das PARK-Modell der Makroökonomie

Once upon a time there was an unforeseen tropical hurricane which triggered a full-fledged crisis of macroeconomic thought on a small island economy. In those critical days, Robinson stranded on the beach of this island and heralded the new PARK model of macroeconomics. Against the resistance of the islands academic elite, the PARK model rang the bell for a paradigm shift in modern macroeconomics. The PARK model illumined the King of the island, and Robinson quickly moved up the academic career ladder to fame and became a national hero. The King bestowed a baroque park upon Robinson, where Robinson lived happily ever after as a private scholar, breeding butterflies. (link to full text)


Volume 2

Emrich, E. & Pierdzioch, C. (2012)

Vademecum der Evalualogie. Neue Arten im Biotop der Wissenschaft

Robinson’s adventures in the biotope of science go on. While his PARK model continues its triumphant success, advocates of the royal bureaucracy of science and moral entrepreneurs construct many secondary competitions that come along in the form of evaluations and rankings. These competitions absorb enormous resources, produce economic rents, and squeeze the researchers into a hamster wheel that, however, only fits the narrow-minded. Robinson makes fundamental considerations on the mechanics of secondary competitions and develops a small-scale model to sketch the implications of such competitions on science. Robinson susses out that bureaucrats do not practise what they preach, and adopts a new motto for his research: „Filled cups are better than empty words.“ (link to full text)

Volume 3

(in progress)


Volume 4

Emrich, E., Büch, M.-P.& Pitsch, W. (2013)

Olympische Spiele - noch zeitgemäß? Werte, Ziele, Wirklichkeit in multidisziplinärer Betrachtung

In a lecture series at Saarland University, speakers who are knowledgeable and experienced in questions concerning the Olympic Games, the Olympic Idea, but also in Olympic problems, addressed one question: Are Olympic Games still up to date? Therefore, the goals and values of the Olympic Games were reflected with reality. Historians, lawyers, economists and sports scientists gave different answers to this question from different perspectives and the result of this search for answers is presented in this volume. It will come as no surprise that these answers are as dazzling and complex as the Olympic Games and the Olympic Idea itself. (link to full text)


Volume 5

Emrich, E.; Anthonj, P.; Flatau, J.; Hämmerle, M. & Rohkohl, F. (2013)

The development of women’s athletics. Findings of an empirical analysis

The present survey measured a wide variety of indicators on different levels, which permit an evaluation of the development of the participation of women in athletics. All in all an upward trend can be noted. One exception is the decreasing proportion of women on the ITO panels. The proportion of female athletes has remained constant over the last few years, however already on a fairly high, if not yet equal, level to that of male athletes. In many fields, on the other hand, despite the outlined development equal representation of women in athletics is still a long way off. (link to  full text)


Volume 6

Zengel, M. (2014)

Die Wirkung von Sportsponsoring - eine Überprüfung kommunikativer Unternehmensziele am Beispiel des Engagements der Robert Bosch GmbH bei den Deutschen Tourenwagen Masters (DTM)

The lack of verification of the effectiveness of sports sponsoring as an advertising instrument is very often justified by sponsoring companies with the argument that sports sponsoring cannot be considered in isolation within a company's overall advertising mix and therefore cannot be assessed separately. Besides this mutual influence, sport sponsoring is also said to have a delaying effect. Furthermore, sports sponsoring is difficult to assess due to the lack of a single "currency". However, the reasons for the rejection of a review are of a completely different nature. Not every marketing manager of a company is interested in reviewing its sports sponsoring concept. Certainly there are companies that plan sports sponsoring and subject it to a complete analysis. But here, too, questions must be asked: Who commissions the checks? Who carries them out? And who are they addressed to? Often they serve as justification within the own company and not for strategic brand management. In this context, it is questionable to what extent external consulting institutes give excessively negative evaluations in view of future orders. This paper deals with the goals Robert Bosch GmbH has set itself with its sports sponsoring at the DTM. These goals were examined with regard to the degree of their realization in order to be able to make statements about the success of sports sponsoring. For this purpose, a total of over 1000 test persons were interviewed in personal and telephone interviews. (link to full text)

Volume 7

Senkel, K. (2014)

(eng) Volume 7: Effectiveness of „anti-doping-law”: an interdisciplinary analysis about the requirements of anti-doping-measures and there implementation

For the fight against doping plenty of governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental measures were taken over the past years. The present research analyzes on the basis of the World-Anti-Doping-Code, the UNESCO-Convention for the fight against doping in sports and the german act “Gesetz zur Verbesserung der Bekämpfung des Dopings im Sport”, to what extent these measures are able to resolve or rather to handle the dopingproblem. In addition to the issue of compliance (effectiveness in the narrow sense), the possibilities and constraints to cover and handle the problem of doping in sports are examined (effectiveness in the wider sense). Furthermore, the aspects of the program objectives and the formal and informal legislative process, the issues of completeness and consistency of the anti-doping-measures are brought up. (Link zum Volltext)


Volume 8

Feth, S., Frenger, M., Pitsch, W., & Schmelzeisen, P. (2014)

Cheater-Detection bei der Randomized Response-Technik. Herleitung, Analyse und Anwendung

If one wants to find out how often an embarrassing characteristic occurs in a population, this is accompanied by a number of problems, which are mainly due to distorted answers as a result of social desirability. The oldest of the techniques developed to compensate for these distortions is the Randomized Response technique, which is still the most widely used and most evaluated and researched technique in the field of sensitive issues. Although this technique guarantees respondents complete security and thus opens up the possibility of responding honestly to threatening questions, "cheating" also occurs in the sense of not following instructions. The present volume describes the mathematical derivation of techniques for detecting the extent to which cheating occurs. It also presents analyses of the characteristics of the procedure and extends these analyses with practical advice on the flexible use of these procedures. For the first time a general solution is developed for different forms of cheating. (link to full text)


Volume 9

Haut, J. (Hrsg.) (2014)

Leistungssport als Konkurrenz der Nationen - sozioökonomische Bedingungen und Effekte

Competitive (Olympic) sport is regarded as an ideal form of competition in which, in accordance with the principles of fairness, equal opportunities, transparency and mutual respect, performance alone should decide. A large part of its popularity is based on this, but also its function as a model for humane performance and peaceful international competition, which is the political justification for the public promotion of competitive sport in many countries. However, in view of the excessive use of resources, doping and other manipulations, the impression often arises that success as the goal of competition is increasingly gaining the upper hand over the preservation of its form. Would such competitive sport in democratic states still be worthy of public support? And what social effects may or must one expect from successful competitive sport? The empirical and theoretical contributions collected in this volume analyse the structures and practices of international sporting competition, their public perception and interpretation in different countries, and the associated - desired and undesired - social and economic effects. (link to full text)


Volume 10

Emrich, Pierdzioch & Pitsch (Hrsg.) (2015)

Falsches Spiel im Sport: Analyse zu Wettbewerbsverzerrungen

The threat to the integrity of sporting competitions through fraud and manipulation is one of the topics currently under intense discussion both within sports science and among the general public interested in sport. In this context, the view of scandals within the "big" sport, often in connection with betting fraud and partly also within the framework of organised crime, which are transported by the media, often obscures the view of less public sports and performance levels. The publicly prominent prosecution of the initiators of the fraud and their networks also distracts attention from the question of how these facts are perceived and judged by the participating athletes, referees, officials and also spectators. And last but not least, the manipulation of competitions usually requires the cooperation of at least some directly involved parties, which leads straight to the question of which factors can influence such participation. The contributions in this book are devoted to all these perspectives, presenting a value-neutral scientific description and analysis of the phenomenon from different perspectives, away from moralizing positions, but also distanced from an immediate thinking of exploitation. (link to full text)

Volume 11

Fröhlich, Gassmann & Emrich (Hrsg.) (2015)

Zur Strukturanalyse des Mehrkampfes in der Leichtathletik: eine empirische Studie zum Zusammenhang von Leistung und Erfolg im Siebenkampf der Frauen und Zehnkampf der Männer

The objective evaluation of performance within athletics is of great importance and it also determines to a large extent the attractiveness of this sport for competitors and spectators. For example, everyone can immediately see who has won the 100 m race, and by means of objective time measurement one immediately knows how the times measured relate to the record holder or other competitors in the same and other competitions. By means of height and distance measurement it is also immediately obvious which woman can jump the highest or throw the javelin the farthest. The measured performance in centimetres, metres and seconds is then the deciding factor for the ranking in the competition under otherwise equal conditions. While this determination of performance for the various individual disciplines within athletics is a sufficiently accurate way of measuring and thus of transforming an empirical relative into a numerical relative, there are problems for the all-around competitions in athletics in transferring the measured values in the individual disciplines equally weighted into points, which, in turn, can result in problems for the objectivity of the rankings on the one hand and, on the other hand, the spatio-temporal comparison of performance in points can also be subject to uncertainties, as can the equal weighting of the individual disciplines in their contribution to the overall performance transformed into points. This means that it is no longer only the absolute performance in the individual discipline that determines the ranking, but that the transformation of the performance becomes the performance-determining criterion. This makes the transformation rules as such important. Their influence on the outcome of the performance evaluation and thus on the outcome of the competition is being investigated in three empirical studies. (link to full text)


Volume 12

Feth, Frenger, Pitsch & Schmelzeisen (2017)

Cheater Detection for Randomized Response-Techniques Derivation, Analyses and Application

Quantitative methods for analysing response behaviour in the event of sensitive questions in surveys are extremely important for social science research. They provide insight into research fields that may simply be difficult to access by other means. The Randomized Response-Technique (RRT) provides a tried and tested instrument in various variants for such analyses. The instrument is used in survey studies, e.g. on addictive behaviours, attempts to cheat at universities, the extent of the black economy, the use of doping in sports or the voting behaviour by the general population. All of these research fields have in common that a true answer can be embarrassing, unpleasant or even burdened by criminal consequences for the respondents. The answers must be graded as sensitive and therefore the data that can be assigned to an individual must either be robustly encrypted. From a social science perspective, we are not interested in tracking the actions of an individual but rather quantifying the proportion of addicts, cheats and fraudsters, illegal workers and dopers in a population. This is precisely what RRT provides. This volume demonstrates the development of various RRT methods, provides an overview of their statistical characteristics, is dedicated in particular to variants of so-called Cheater Detection (i.e. the group of respondents who in spite of the assured encryption do not comply with the RRT instructions) and illustrates practical applications of RRT using numerical simulations. To the interested reader, this offers a more concise and yet in-depth overview of the aspects and problems to be taken into account when applying RRT. This should result in better design for survey studies and therefore to the derivation of more reliable empirical results. RRT has been used repeatedly in the past as part of the research projects by the European Institute for Socioeconomics (EIS). This volume summarises the experience of EIS researchers when dealing with RRT and makes it accessible to a wide range of readers. The EIS Series is available as an Open Access Publication so that interested readers are not tempted to create a pirated copy or to obtain a copy of the volume by other illegal channels. Therefore, readers of our series of publications may face future RRT-surveys on the frequency of copying books illegally in a relaxed way. (Link zum Volltext)

Volume 13

Herrmann (2020)

Sportwetten - Im Spannungsfeld zwischen Illusion, Risiko und Rationalität

Sports betting combines the openness of sports competition with the openness of betting. The annual growth in turnover shows an increasing demand for sports betting. Despite numerous research approaches related to sports betting, questions regarding the motives and characteristics of bettors remain open. Sociological and economic approaches to explanation see the function of gambling, among other things, in the attempt to break out of everyday routines through tension and thus to open up a space for success, risk and personal expression that is rather not given in everyday life. Moreover, participation in sports betting is associated with the chance of winning money, so that the stake can be regarded as a more or less risky investment. In the economic explanation of participation in gambling, assumptions about distorted perceived chances of winning and irrational choices are contrasted with rational calculation and the use of specific human capital. The aim of this empirical study is to analyze the social figure of the bettor and to transfer the explanation of gambling participation to the participation in sports betting. In addition, questions regarding the regulation of sports betting, the business model of sports betting, the effects of sports betting on sports and the comparison with financial products will be addressed. (link to full text)


Nr. 1: Anthonj, Emrich & Pierdzioch (2013)

Hooliganism and interventions against football hooliganism : empirical analysis and socio-economic modelling

Mass media often publish reports saying that violence of football supporters is a severe and wide-spread problem beleaguering German professional football. Since around 1980, German football clubs founded fan projects in an attempt to reduce violence among football supporters. The results reported in this research show that violence of football supporters, in contrast to frequent media reports, has not increased during the last ten years. This result is in line with results of a questionnaire study of representatives of fan projects. Notwithstanding, considerable resources have been spent in the past to solve this non-existent social problem. A stylized socioeconomic model is being developed in this research to explain the empirical findings. (link to full text)

Nr. 2: Flatau, Emrich & Pierdzioch (2013)

Zur empirischen Prüfbarkeit des homo (socio-) oeconomicus anhand der Messung der Motive ehrenamtlichen Engagements in Sportvereinen

Assuming a homo socio-oeconomicus who is generally trying to maximize his utility, corresponding motives for voluntary engagement should be dominant. But since these Motives are, unlike altruistic motives, socially undesirable, a systematic bias can be expected when empirically testing corresponding hypotheses. On the basis of an online survey of volunteers in football clubs, this bias has been measured using indirect interview techniques. The testing of the formulated auxiliary hypotheses used confirms the hard core of assumptions that volunteers have egoistic utility motives. (link to full text)

Nr. 3: Dessauer, Emrich, Klein & Pierdzioch (2013)

Zur Evaluation wissenschaftlicher Publikationsleistungen in der Sportwissenschaft

Research rankings are partly based on bibliometric data. The indicators used to evaluate the publication contributions often lead to discussions. This article examines the problems and consequences of recording publication performance in sports science. After a characterisation of the science market and the genesis of the current CHE-Ranking in sports science, the impact of changed transformation rules in the evaluation of publication performance, possible scale effects in publication activity, the influence of the publication form on the ranking position, the connection of age with preferred publication forms and the influence of age on publication output are examined on an empirical basis. It is clear, among other things, that the effects of publication ranking favour risk-averse as well as ranking influenced strategies in the choice of research topic or research method, especially among younger scientists, which in turn leads to an undesired, innovation-hostile homogenisation tendency under competitive conditions. (link to full text)

Nr. 4: Emrich, Frenger & Pitsch (2013)

Soziologische und ökonomische Funktion von Grenzwerten – eine kurze Skizze

In addition to the preservation of the Olympic idea and the organisation of the Olympic Games, the marketing of the competition is the responsibility of the IOC. However, it is not only the sporting performance in competition that is marketed, but a complementary good consisting of the sporting (top) performance and the belief in the rule-compliant provision of this performance. In the case of doping, there is the problem that the breach of the rules through the use of illicit substances cannot be immediately detected by the spectators of the competitions, but only becomes apparent after the doping samples have been evaluated. Doping thus leads to a problem that extends over several periods with regard to the marketing of the co-product (performance and honest provision of services). This article looks at the resulting tensions in the IOC and how these are managed at the athlete and provider level while maintaining income opportunities. In detail, it examines the special trust characteristics of Olympic sport, the function of belief in the regularity of performance and how this belief is produced, as well as the function of thresholds. Subsequently, a formalization approach is presented, which tries to reflect the benefit maximizing decisions of the three interest groups in the context of Olympic sport, namely organizers, athletes and spectators. The focus is on the benefits that spectators derive from Olympic sport. The maximum spectator benefit is achieved precisely under the condition that few doping tests are carried out.  (link to full text)

Nr. 5: Pierdzioch & Emrich (2014)

Internet und die Bindung Ehrenamtlicher am Beispiel des Deutschen Roten Kreuzes

By means of an online survey among volunteers of the German Red Cross (GRC), it was investigated whether the use of the Internet influences the volunteers' attachment to the GRC. Loyalty to the GRC was measured multi-dimensionally based on the willingness of volunteers to donate, their expressed willingness to expand their voluntary work and their satisfaction with their voluntary work, whereby numerous socio-economic factors were monitored. The empirical findings show that intensive volunteer-related use of the Internet, but not the intensity of use for leisure activities, has a bond-strengthening effect. The analysis makes a contribution to the discussion of the question of the influence of Internet use or the intensity of Internet use on social capital and social inclusion of users by discussing this question in a volunteer-related context using a micro-data set for a large organisation of the social economy with a differentiated consideration of different intensities and forms of Internet use. (link to full text)

Nr. 6: Pierdzioch & Emrich (2014)

Zivilgesellschaftliches Engagement im Lebenszyklus

By means of an online survey among volunteers of the German Red Cross (GRC), the development of civil society involvement over the life cycle was examined. From around the age of 40, volunteers significantly intensify their involvement in civil society. Furthermore, the results of both a direct survey and an indirect survey, which was used to check for possible bias in the answers, show that the increased involvement is accompanied by a shift in the motives for volunteer work, from extrinsic-egoistic to altruistic motives. (link to full text)

Nr 7: Emrich, Koch & Anthonj (2014)

Eine Bestandsaufnahme für die Gegenwart: Zum Verhältnis von Sport und Politik in der Region Rheinland-Pfalz

In the light of the Principal Agent Theory, changing structural imbalances between sports federations and state sports federation in Rhineland-Palatinate are investigated over time. Until about 1966, the state sports federation was a kind of political office, which was run alternately as an extended arm and with a high degree of transparency by one of the three sports federations and effectively represented their interests vis-à-vis the state government. Since 1966, the State Sports Federation has developed from a servant of three masters as a legal entity in its own right to an equal partner of the sports federations with strong self-interests, while constantly expanding its tasks. From this, a power struggle between the sports federations and the State Sports Federation is developing, which is initially caused by increasing state funds and subsequently intensified by decreasing state funds and the increased leadership of the State Sports Federation in terms of state politics. State politics uses the power vacuum resulting from the status rivalry in the sense of an effective external representation of sport as an entrepreneur in the vote market in order to increase its chances of re-election and generally the influence of state politics in organised sport by promoting popular commercial sport. (link to full text)

Nr. 8: Hämmerle, Rullang, Pierdzioch & Emrich (2014)

The social figure of the volunteer in the Red Cross - results of a comparative empirical study

Using a new dataset, we study the socioeconomic characteristics of volunteers working for the German Red Cross. Based on theoretical considerations, we compare volunteers of the German Red Cross with volunteers working for German football clubs. Such a comparison allows volunteerism in altruistic versus egoistic clubs to be studied. We use our theoretical considerations to derive hypotheses regarding the class-dependence of volunteerism, the motives of volunteers and the time they spent on volunteering, and the utility volunteers derive from their work. Against the background of our empirical results, we discuss how the recruitment of volunteers and their commitment can be strengthened. (link to full text)

Nr. 9: Emrich (2014)

Evaluation between supply and demand - On the ethos of research and its impact on knowledge markets

Politically driven mechanisms of external control drive scientists into a rat race for third-party funding and impact factors that is also personally relevant to their income. This weakens their attachment to the pure ethos of research in the sense of Merton (1938) and increases the probability of affirmative research, and the more intense the less the attachment to the pure ethos of research becomes. With regard to evaluation research as a form of applied science, which is offered both in and outside the university, the following questions arise: What concrete institutional influences is evaluation research exposed to inside and outside the university? What specific competitive relationships can arise between the types of providers of evaluation knowledge, and what effects does this have on the respective knowledge production? What structural aspects and interaction dynamics shape the social relationship between client and contractor, both for providers within and outside the university science sector? In order to answer these questions, the following approach is taken: First, the question of the independence of evaluation research is discussed in a brief overview, depending on the context (university versus non-university evaluation research). Then, with the help of empirical findings, the problem of the professional ethics of researchers working in evaluation is shown and reflected in the pure ethos of research (Merton 1938). In the following, the social relationship between client and recipient is illustrated with the help of game theory considerations and, with the help of the concept of incomplete contracts discussed in institutional economics (cf. Richter & Furubotn, 1999), the dynamics of interaction and changing structural imbalances are discussed, both for non-university service providers and for university ones. (link to full text)

Nr. 10: Emrich & Pitsch (2014)

Sports Science as the Church of Reason and its Believers - The normative foundations of scientific rationality

In a scientific discipline which, as an applied science during the Cold War, was supposed to symbolically enable and support the superiority of the respective bloc on the field of sport, it has always been difficult to follow the principles of the ethos of research unrestrictedly and unconditionally. These expectations of the so-called practice of university sports science, in concert with the increasing external control of the university, increase the chances of affirmative findings being delivered. In this network of tension, a strict orientation towards the CUDOS norms of Merton (1985) reduces the chances of affirmative findings, but at the same time the chance of inner-scientific recognition is reduced in relation to many other university scientific disciplines. For example, sports science does not even exist in the German Research Foundation as a separate discipline to be funded. In this respect, the use of time for the consumption of media recognition or the recognition of sports practice is more likely to be expected than the consumption of time for the production of internal scientific recognition. There are two reasons that favour this state of affairs. Firstly, university science is developing in such a way that the consumption of external recognition is becoming increasingly significant, and secondly, sports scientists often have a certain proximity to the subject of sport, i.e. they tend to become closer in the balancing of proximity and distance, which in turn is reinforced by the orientation towards practice in the discipline as applied science. (link to full text)

Nr. 11: Emrich, Pierdzioch & Pitsch (2014)

The "brand" Olympia and the special importance of trust criteria - a story of market, power and morals

Brands are complex promises. The consumption of Olympic sports (e.g. by spectators) is socially embedded and dependent on trust. Reputation of the IOC and compliance (e.g. freedom from doping) of Olympic athletes are important demand factors. Protests in Switzerland, Bavaria and currently in Brazil against the organisation of the Olympic Games, data from Olympic spectator surveys and the significance of the Olympic medal table provide empirical evidence that fairness and ethical commitment as an ethical argument that is partly independent of price and income are incorporated into the consumer demand function. In order to resolve the conflict between the goals of the production function (top sporting performance, income) and the legitimacy function (fair, clean Olympic sport), the IOC not only decouples speech and action in its communications, but also invests in the appearance of compliance with rules and media influence as a benefit for maximising stakeholders. The interrelationships are depicted in a formal model of the IOC as a benefit for maximising actors. (link to full text)

Nr. 12: Thieme, Winkelhake & Hartmann (2014)

Fairness as a universal norm? : Empiric evidence without manna

In an anonymous experiment with induced fairness norms, physical exercises (squat jumps with arm-swings) are used as payment units in order to avoid windfall gains. We vary fairness norms, authority norms and social control in three experiments and find evidence that endogenous factors are having an effect even without windfall gains. Authority norms and social control result in less norm violations, but they do not result in a collective higher payment in the cost situation we created. We believe payments above the fairness norm to be a sequential cash flow with a random probability of termination after each payment. (link to full text)

Nr. 13: Emrich & Pierdzioch (2015)

Entrepreneurs in the doping market - gene doping as a new business field

The detection rate of identified doping consumers is relatively stable over time, if one considers the detection rate of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) or National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA) in Germany. As always, when social behaviour and institutional regulations prove to be stable and resistant to various attempts at change despite attempts to contain or combat them, reasons for this can be assumed from a (socio)economic perspective, namely: There are status- and income-related interests of individual and corporate actors who fear loss of income and function and therefore fight to maintain their status quo and thus ultimately to preserve material and immaterial income. There are institutional regulations in sport which allow for a demand-relevant optimum between maximum performance and integrity of the performance rendered and thus stabilize income opportunities. It is to be assumed that this optimum, even in the face of exogenous shocks over time, driven by the interests of the players, will always lead to new states of equilibrium. The following contribution is intended as a first sketch: The general social construction mechanism of a social problem is applied to the phenomenon of doping. Furthermore, the media coverage of doping, especially gene doping, will be analysed. Two aspects are important here, firstly the significance of media reports as an exogenous factor and secondly their use to establish a new business field for anti-doping organizations. Finally, the theoretical considerations are cast into a formal model and the current situation is interpreted in the light of this model. (link to full text)

Nr. 14: Emrich & Pierdzioch (2015)

Public goods, private consumption, and human-capital formation: On the economics of volunteer labour supply

Economists use three types of models to describe voluntary labour supply: the public goods model, the private consumption model and the human capital model. We have used data from an online survey of volunteers working for the German Red Cross to investigate to what extent each type helps to explain the supply of voluntary labour. To this end, we empirically investigated different correlates of the supply of volunteer labour, including the components of the benefits agents receive from volunteering. We used strengthened regression trees to track the main correlations of the supply of volunteer labor to investigate the relative contributions of the benefit components and possible interaction effects between the benefit components and other correlates. (link to full text)

Nr. 15: Emrich & Pierdzioch (2015)

Volunteering, match quality, and Internet use

We used reinforced regression trees to investigate the interaction between game quality and volunteers' Internet usage. In our use of the term, game quality reflects the congruence between the volunteers' motives for their volunteer work and their user experiences. Using data from an online survey of volunteers working for the German Red Cross, we found a positive correlation between match quality and both social media use and the intensity of volunteer internet use. We used the estimated amplified regression trees to investigate the relative importance of Internet use and other control variables for match quality, the partial dependence of match quality on Internet use and control variables, and the interaction of Internet use with control variables. (link to full text)

Nr. 16: Emrich, Pierdzioch & Rullang (2016)

For the love of football? Using economic models of volunteering to study the motives of German football referees

Using data from a large sample of German football referees, we investigated the motives for working as a football referee. Based on a long tradition of modelling in the literature on the economics of volunteering, we investigated altruistic motives (public welfare model) versus non-altruistic (selfish private consumption and human capital motives). We distinguished between self-determined and externally determined motives. We found that altruistic motives are on average less pronounced than other motives. Altruistic motives ascribed to others are stronger than altruistic motives ascribed to themselves, indicating a distortion of self-interest. We also found that referees who report strong altruistic motives are more likely to give up refereeing if other referees would referee more games, which is consistent with the public interest model. In line with the human capital model, altruistic motives are more pronounced in older referees. Altruistic motives are also more pronounced in those referees who consider refereeing to be a voluntary activity. (link to full text)

Nr. 17: Haut (2016) 

International Prestige through Sporting Success? Searching Empirical Evidence

A central argument in favour of public funding of top-level sport is the assertion that success at Olympic Games or World Championships would help the country as a whole to gain greater international prestige. While this assumption generally seems plausible, it clearly lacks specification. Therefore, in a first step, several theoretical approaches are discussed in order to unravel what forms of prestige of states can be aspired to in which sports and events. Subsequently, the (rather limited!) state of empirical research on the topic is summarized. Even the few available results show that the formula "the more success, the more prestige" is all too simple. In the following, possible methodological approaches and available indicators for sport-induced changes in international prestige are presented and discussed. The paper concludes with proposals for concrete steps towards a more systematic analysis of the issues at stake. (link to full text)

Nr. 18: Flatau & Emrich (2016) 

Excessive passive sports consumption - Is the addiction to stadium football rational?

In this paper, the consumption behaviour of football stadium visitors is empirically investigated. We investigate (1) which benefits arise from passive football consumption in stadiums, (2) under which conditions this consumption can become an "addiction" and (3) to what extent such an addiction can be described as "rational". The findings confirm the assumptions that the benefit of watching increases with certain types of consumer capital (experience and information) and that obsessive consumption is associated with higher benefits in general and social benefits in particular. We investigate (1) which benefits arise from passive football consumption in stadiums, (2) under which conditions this consumption can become an "addiction" and (3) to what extent such an addiction can be described as "rational". The findings confirm the assumptions that the benefit of watching increases with certain types of consumer capital (experience and information) and that obsessive consumption is associated with higher benefits in general and social benefits in particular. (link to full text)

Nr. 19: Rullang, Emrich & Pierdzioch (2017)

Why do referees end their careers and which factors determine the duration of a referee’s career?

Against the background that the number of referees has been declining in recent years, the German Football Association (DFB) must answer two central questions: (i) Why do referees end their careers, and (ii) what factors determine the length of a referee's career? We have examined these questions using data from a questionnaire study with former referees. The results of the estimation of linear regression models and a Cox model show that the duration of a typical referee career depends, among other things, on how an arbitrator thinks his career will develop according to his plan, and on whether the referee successfully handles insults, threats and violence. The "survival rate" of a referee increases in the subjective assessment of the importance of know-how specific to football. Around 39% of former referees stated that the end of their refereeing career could have been prevented. Against the background that the number of referees has declined in recent years, the German Football Association (DFB) must answer two central questions: (i) Why do referees end their careers, and (ii) what factors determine the length of a referee's career? We have examined these questions using data from a questionnaire study with former referees. The results of the estimation of linear regression models and a Cox model show that the duration of a typical referee career depends, among other things, on how an arbitrator thinks his career will develop according to his plan, and on whether the referee successfully handles insults, threats and violence. The "survival rate" of a referee increases in the subjective assessment of the importance of know-how specific to football. About 39% of former referees stated that the end of their refereeing career could have been prevented. (link to full text)

Nr. 20: Barth, Emrich & Daumann (2017)

Evaluation of Sporting Success in Austria – An Institutional Economics Analysis

In the analysis of Austrian top-class sport, a distinction can be made between hierarchical and market economy organisation. Following Williamson, the question of a superiority of the form of governance based on the factor specificity of investments is investigated. The results of an applied logit-loglinear model based on data from surveys with Austrian "cadre athletes" show that such a superiority does not seem to exist. Further examination of the data shows that these results are apparently due to Austria's "prerequisites". In a hybrid form of organisation such as the one in Austria, centralisation may have exceeded the optimal level, and the congruence of the various products seems to be overemphasised.  (link to full text)

Nr. 21: Behrens, Emrich, Hämmerle & Pierdzioch (2017)

Match Quality, Crowding Out, and Crowding In: Empirical Evidence for German Sports Clubs

Volunteering can be interpreted as a search process that balances the supply of volunteer labour with the demand for volunteering by voluntary organisations such as sports clubs. Using novel data from an online questionnaire study among German sports club members, we constructed a Match Quality Index (MQI) that measures the result of this search process: the congruence of motives for volunteering and the benefit experience from volunteering. On average, the MQI is higher for volunteers who would increase their workload if their sports club received additional public subsidies or other volunteers increased their workload (crowding-in effect). The MQI is also higher on average for volunteers who would increase their workload if other volunteers reduced their workload (crowding-in effect). In addition, the quality of match shows a positive correlation with important results of volunteer work such as volunteer satisfaction, the work offered and the confidence of volunteers that they meet the requirements of their volunteer positions. The MQI is positively correlated with a bridging but also with a connecting element of social capital. (link to full text)

Nr. 22: Thieme & Winkelhake (2018)

On the effect of moral appeals as nudging? Results from behavioural economics experiments

Standards play a central role in the discussions on the use of nudges to stimulate desired behaviour. With the help of a variation of the dictatorial game we investigate whether the reference to an equal distribution norm causes a change in behaviour in the sense of nudging. We further examine whether the effect of the equal distribution norm depends on the size of the group that benefits from division. Our results show a medium to large effect when reference is made to an equal distribution norm. However, this effect seems to be independent of the size of the group that benefits. The results prove to be robust to manna effects inherent in dictatorial games. (link to full text)

Nr. 23: Ackermann & Follert (2018)

Some valuation-theoretical comments on the market value analysis of the platform

Numerous sports economics studies refer to the "market values" provided by the platform. A theoretical consideration of what is to be understood by this term and whether the figures determined satisfy a valuation-theoretical foundation remains unconsidered. The present contribution aims to contribute to closing this research gap and analyses's market value analysis in the light of modern valuation theory. It is shown that although "market values" can be used for argumentation purposes in negotiations, it is not possible to support decisions in the run-up to a player transfer. (link to full text)

Nr. 24: Herrmann, Emrich, Frenger & Rasche (2018)

First Step Developing A Early-Warning System Against Corruption For Sports Associations

The business model of sports is based on trust, reputation and fairness. In recent years sports associations have often engaged in crime, corruption and non-compliance, which has damaged the reputation of sports. A professional compliance tool to counteract the loss of trust is still missing, an early-warning system for sports organisations could provide a solution. It simulates how they react to non-tolerable instances of corruption, doping or violations of competitive integrity. The aim of this article is to present the first step developing an earlywarning system for sports associations. The approach of New Institutional Economics was chosen to be the theoretical framework to understand the characteristics of corrupt deals and from that identify indicators that uncover corruption at an early stage. To support the normative process of indicator finding a literature research and a case study were carried out. The results indicate that corrupt deals involve three phases and that the relationship between the corrupt partners is central. Regarding to the strong bonds in corrupt relationships a lack of term limitations, no rotation in leadership positions, missing systems of whistleblowing or insufficient transparency could be possible indicators for corruption and non-compliance in sports associations. (link to full text)

Nr. 25: Koch (2018)

Investments and capital stocks as estimations for health infrastructure in the European Countries (EU28)

Health is, beside of other services and commodities, e.g. education or social housing, a merit, quasi-public good. Since private provision of health services would presumptively not be sufficient in quality and quantity, one could argue there is a responsibility by the state to provide a sufficient amount of health services to its population. However, it is difficult to quantify the sufficient amount with public goods, in general. One required component of the healthcare provision is infrastructure, such as hospitals, operation theaters etc. and its related equipment, such as beds, imaging devices etc. To estimate the existing infrastructure in the European countries, without an on-the-ground evaluation, we use investment time series for tangible and intangible assets (Gross Fixed Capital Formation) reported to Eurostat and compute Capital Stock for each country, using the Perpetual Inventory Method (PIM) considering country specific depreciation rates and growth rates for each included asset. Based on the last computed capital stock in 2016 as benchmark, we evaluate the effect of the global financial crises in 2008. Furthermore, we run two future scenarios for EU28 in total and each country: (I) how much annual investment is needed, such that the capital stocks keep pace with annual GDP growth rates and (II) how much annual investment is needed, such that the 2016 capital stock per capita can be maintained in the future.  (link to full text)

Nr. 26: Barth, Emrich & Güllich (2018)

A machine learning approach to ‘revisit’ specialization and sampling in institutionalized practice

Apart from a broad consensus statement stressing the essential role of practice for achieving success in international senior-level competitions, the nature and scope of developmental participation leading to that extraordinary success in sports have been controversially discussed in international literature for many years. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the existing body of literature in two respects: first, by reviewing the existing literature comparing the developmental activities of internationally and only nationally successful senior athletes. Second, a new methodical approach combining decision trees and gradient boosting is applied to data from a previous study, the results of which were internationally published. This does not only allow for the realization of a multivariate analysis (robustness check), but also gives reasonable hope of achieving a relatively better explanation than with the procedures applied in the past. The approach is realized by means of Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost under the R environment). The results indicate that some formerly found differences in the volume of structured practice in main and other sports between internationally and only nationally successful athletes may represent rather artifacts of uncontrolled age effects than variables that differentiate the groups. In the context of the specialization-diversification debate, the present results indicate that from today’s perspective there is a debate about a “production function”, the structure of which is unknown. Obviously, practice-related recommendations on developmental practice volume are expressions of highly rationalized myths rather than evidence-based efficient norms. (link to full text)

Nr. 27: Follert (2019)

On the plans for a 'super league' in European football: a commentary from a sports economics perspective

There are increasing media reports concerning a planned “Super League” in European football. The following paper analyzes the debate from an economic point of view. Therefore, the article presents a cost-benefit analysis from the perspective of the FC Bayern Munich that is one of two German candidates for the “Super League”. The analysis points out that advantages and disadvantages must be balanced carefully and that the final decisions is based on the uncertainty of the future. (link to full text)

Nr. 28: Follert & Emrich (2019)

What if...? - A microeconomic thought experiment on a super league in European football

The news magazine Spiegel recently published revelations by the "Football Leaks" platform which suggest that top European clubs have agreed to set up a superleague organised under private law. With regard to the microeconomic effects for the Bundesliga and the other players DFB, DFL e.V. and UEFA, there is a need for research in economic literature - not least because of the topicality of the topic. The present contribution conducts a kind of economic thought experiment by assuming that there will be a superleague in European club football. On the one hand, the expected effects on demand and on the other hand, possible institutional consequences are discussed. The findings of the paper can be used by football officials in their sports political decisions. (link to full text)

Nr. 29: Follert (2019)

To the punishment for economic and tax crimes: An economic analysis

Property and tax crimes account for a significant proportion of criminal activity and result in significant economic damage. Two of the most prominent offenders in this area in recent years were Thomas Middelhoff and Uli Hoeneß, both of whom were serving sentences. In the present paper, the media presence of both cases is taken as an opportunity to compare the imprisonment with the fine based on economic theory. It will be argued that the fine is to be preferred from an economic perspective, so that it can be considered useful to use fines as a first-choice punishment in economic and tax-criminal cases. The paper understands itself in this regard as a plea. (link to full text)

Nr. 30: Frenger, Emrich, Geber, Follert & Pierdzioch (2019)

The Influence of Performance Parameters on Market Value

Research question: We uncover the influence of performance parameters on market value of football players in German Bundesliga. Hereby, the analyses should in some places reach beyond the current state of research by, for example, using relative operating times or running kilometres in the analysis.

Research methods: To this end, we analysed all players in the season 2015/16 who had at least one significant participation in a game. Because of the unclear functional form of the links of the market value of players to the influencing variables, we carried out the analysis using Boosted Regression Trees in order to be able to map and interpret both different scale levels and nonlinearities.

Results and Findings: We found the highest relative influence in the ranking of TV money from the preseason (>50%) and goals and high pass rate (each >10%). Partial-dependence plots recover the nonlinear influence of variable on the market value of players.

Implications: It seems that the market value depends significantly less on sports performance than assumed. On the one hand, the preselection of the players in the respective clubs causes a clear difference in the market values of the individual players. In addition, the often-assumed linearity for some variables is just as little as the quadratic correlation, which is often assumed for old age, which is why classical OLS estimates cannot be sufficiently argued.  (link to full text)

Nr. 31: Emrich, Frenger, Gassmann, Hämmerle & Pierdzioch (2019)

German Sports Clubs Recruitment of Executive Board Members

This paper analyzes the recruitment of executive board members for German sports clubs, an issue of key interest given that volunteers play a dominant role in these sports clubs. Based on a new, micro-level data set, we examine how members of a sports club advance to become executive board members and how board members differ from ordinary members. Based on the results of our study, we examine whether Michels’ “iron law of oligarchy” applies and whether democratic procedures for elections in sports clubs are replaced, even in part, by trust-based oligarchic structures. (link to full text)

Nr. 32: Frenger, Follert, Richau & Emrich (2019)

Follow me … on the relationship between social media activities and market values in the German Bundesliga’s market value (transfermarkt value) is a topic that is discussed very often in sports economics. Based on existing literature, we assume that the Transfermarkt value is a function of different input parameters, such as player characteristics, player performance, player presentation and team performance. This paper analyzes the relationship between a player’s social media activity and his market value based on Based on a dataset of 600 players from the German Bundesliga, we find that Instagram activity has a significant impact on a player’s market value. On the basis of this result, we discuss several implications for professional football players on the one hand and for clubs on the other. The paper opens up a new dimension of economic research in professional football, namely, the sport economic significance of social media. (link to full text)

Nr. 33: Emrich & Follert (2019)

Dead men live longer! Some remarks on homo oeconomicus as a method

The economic model with its homo oeconomicus has been under attack since the last international financial and economic crisis at the latest. Unfortunately the criticism often rests on a false and in parts outdated state of knowledge about the economic method. Homo oeconomicus was and is developable and more realistic than its reputation. Like hardly any other model it can be used to explain human behaviour in all areas of life. This paper seeks to dispel these prejudices and analyses the method "homo oeconomicus" from the point of view of modern economics. (link to full text)

Nr. 34: Follert, Naumann & Thieme (2020)

Between scientific publication and public perception : some economic remarks on the allocation of time in science

Like every other human being, scientists also have to allocate their scarce resources of time and production according to their personal preferences. Today’s scientific system is domina-ted by different (external) incentives that influence a researcher’s decisions. With respect to the individual research strategy, there seems to be a conflict between scientific rigor and prac-tical relevance. In addition, only certain scientific results actually find their way into the ge-neral public. We assume therefore that the use of virological and economic expertise are two different forms of reception of science by another social sphere. If our assumption is correct, the question arises as to how such rules of reception are formed and stabilized. This question will be investigated in the present paper. With regard to his or her publication strategy, the scientist therefore has to decide interdependently. Based on the economic approach in general, and Gary S. Becker’s theory of time allocation specifically, we develop a simple model to ex-plain scientific decision-making behavior. We derive several implications with regard to a strategy on time allocation in research processes, and thus contribute to a better understanding of scientific decision-making processes. In our paper, we concentrate on the general conditions in (business) economics, but the findings can also be applied to other (human) sciences. In order to be as up-to-date as possible, we take an additional look at the role of science in the current COVID-19 crisis as well. (link to full text)

Nr. 35: Thieme & Falk (2021)

On the development of remuneration systems in major German sports clubs

There is an increasing professionalization in organized sports, especially in the large clubs of the Freiburg Circle. This full-time staff must be compensated. As in large parts of the non-profit economy as a whole, there are hardly any findings on pay structures, pay levels and pay systems. For broad-based sports clubs, there are neither studies on the content-related characteristics of compensation systems, on factors influencing the design, on the effect of compensation systems, nor on changes over time. For the present study, the thesis of Brandl was used as a starting point: there are three stages from a person-centered to a function-centered to a performance-centered compensation system, with subsequent compensation systems being understood as a direct reaction to existing problems with previous compensation systems. Based on surveys of large sports clubs in 2004, 2008, 2014, and 2018, only very weak evidence was obtained that this model is correct. Compensation systems in large sports clubs exhibit stable structures that can largely be explained by market mechanisms and ideational orientations. In particular, hardly any evidence of performance-based compensation could be found, which is in harmony with the self-image of an NPO. (link to full text)

Nr. 36: Post (2021)

The application and adaption of the organizational capacity framework on sports clubs to identify causes for organizational problems

Scientific reflections of sports clubs are confronted with the problem of finding an appropriate approach to reflect the diversity of sports-related organizations. The purpose of this study is to observe the performance of sports clubs by considering the problems that occur. In order to capture the organizations in a model, the organizational capacity framework is presented. Since previous scientific studies have not resulted in standardized variables, a specific selection of relevant aspects is required. The framework captures the interdependent influence of human, financial, process and infrastructural, network and relationship as well as planning and development resources within the organization. The potential usefulness of the application of the framework is tested on sports clubs in the Rhineland (n = 1,000). The results of the multiple regression show that the organizational capacity framework is suitable to be applied on sports clubs, but requires further research to obtain more meaningful statements. Regarding organizational problems, it is indicated that board members, sufficient finances, strategic planning, and availability and accessibility of facilities are most important to reduce problems. Practical implications are addressed to both sports clubs and umbrella organizations. (link to full text)


Gassmann, Emrich, Meyer & Rampeltshammer (Hrsg.) (2018)

Die Karrierepfade der Absolventinnen und der Absolventen der Universität des Saarlandes

2015 erschien die Absolventenstudie „Was kommt nach dem Studium an der Universität des Saarlandes?“ Daran anknüpfend bietet dieses Buch eine detaillierte und wesentlich erweiterte Analyse der Karriereverläufe der Absolvent/innen. Neben Befragungsdaten werden dazu die integrierten Erwerbsbiographien der UdS-Absolvent/innen als eine auf amtlicher Statistik beruhende, sehr verlässliche Datenquelle herangezogen. Die Studie bietet aufbauend auf allgemeinen Überlegungen zum Arbeitsmarkt für Akademiker/innen unter anderem einen Überblick über die Studiengänge in den einzelnen Fakultäten der Universität des Saarlandes, die Einmündungsprozesse der Absolvent/innen in den Arbeitsmarkt, ihre Einkommenssituation und Mobilität im Arbeitsmarkt, letzteres mit einem besonderen Blick auf die Karriereverläufe von der ersten bis zur dritten Erwerbstätigkeit. (link to full text)

Frenger (2016)

Untersuchungen zum Problem- und Geschäftsfeld Doping. eine sozioökonomische Analyse auf Mikro- und Makroebene

Das Problemfeld Doping ist im Diskurs zu sportlichen Ereignissen ebenso präsent, wie die sportlichen Leistungen selbst. Doping als eine Form abweichenden Verhaltens ist somit unmittelbar mit dem Sport verbunden, wird jedoch meistens negativ bewertet und stellt somit im Rahmen des sportlichen Geschehens ein „soziales Problem“ dar. Eine derart populäre Thematik ist nicht davor gefeit, dass sich Meinungen und Vorstellungen verfestigen, denen an vielen Stellen empirische Befunde entgegen stehen oder auch gänzlich fehlen. An dieser Stelle setzt die kumulative Arbeit an, in der fünf „Mythen“ zum Problem- und Geschäftsfeld Doping einer genaueren oder erstmaligen empirischen Prüfung unterzogen werden. Diese Mythen betreffen Argumente für eine Ausweitung der Anti-Doping-Politik bzgl. Strafen und zum Schutz der Athletengesundheit, die Perspektive der Zuschauer und Medien, die Verbindung zwischen Einkommenschancen und Doping ebenso wie die Verbreitung des „Problems“ im Breitensport. Die zugrunde liegenden Studien sind in ein größeres Forschungsnetzwerk eingebettet, in dem interdisziplinär und auf unterschiedlichen Ebenen das Thema beleuchtet wird. Ein Schwerpunkt stellt dabei die sozioökonomischen Perspektive da und hierbei die grundlegenden Annahmen rational handelnder Akteure sowie Kosten-Nutzen-Kalkuationen zur Erreichung eines Optimums. (link to full text)

Emrich, Gassmann, Herrmann (Hrsg.) (2016)

Die Universität Potsdam in sozioökonomischer Perspektive

Universitäten erbringen wohlfahrtsfördernde Leistungen für die Gesellschaft, insbesondere indem sie Studierende ausbilden, über Forschung neues Wissen erzeugen sowie den Wissens- und Technologietransfer in Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft hinein betreiben. Die Erbringung dieser Leistungen wird ermöglicht durch eine größtenteils öffentliche Finanzierung, die nicht nur in Zeiten wirtschaftlicher Krisen und Spargebote gerne hinterfragt wird. Die Politik ist daher ebenso wie die Hochschulen gut beraten, die Mittelzuweisungen immer wieder neu zu legitimieren. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die sozioökonomischen Effekte der Universität Potsdam und schließt so vorhandene Informationslücken. Die Autoren zeigen, dass auch indirekte und unerwartete Effekte eine große Rolle spielen können, was die Wirkung einer Universität auf Wirtschaft und Wohlstand angeht. (link to full text)

Gassmann, Emrich, Meyer, Rampeltshammer (2015)

Was kommt nach dem Studium an der Universität des Saarlandes? Empirische Befunde einer fächerübergreifenden Absolventenstudie

Absolventenstudien haben Konjunktur. Sie beanspruchen, einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Steuerung von Universitäten zu liefern. Dieses Buch setzt sich kritisch mit diesem Anspruch auseinander und bietet einen Überblick über die zentralen Befunde solcher Studien. Es liefert darüber hinaus zum ersten Mal empirische Befunde zu den Absolventen der Universität des Saarlandes und ordnet diese in den bundesweiten Kontext ein. Diese Ergebnisse belegen den Ertrag von Bildungsinvestitionen und deren gesellschaftlichen Nutzen unabhängig von den gewählten Studienfächern. (link to full text)

Emrich, Meyer & Rampeltshammer (Hrsg.) (2013)

Die Universität des Saarlandes in sozio-ökonomischer Perspektive: ausgewählte Analysen sozialer und wirtschaftlicher Effekte

Universitäten werden von der öffentlichen Hand primär als Kostenfaktor, weniger als zukunftsweisendes Investment betrachtet. Dies begründet sich unter anderem durch fehlende Informationen über die soziale und wirtschaftliche Bedeutung von Universitäten für eine Region. Die vorliegende Studie zur Universität des Saarlandes schließt diese Lücke und rückt die für das Saarland befürchteten Folgen eines weiteren Rückbaus der Universität in den Blickpunkt von Politik und Öffentlichkeit. (link to full text)